Alnico and Alcomax Permanent Magnets
Many strong permanent magnets have been made from alloys of aluminum, nickel and cobalt with iron. Alnico and alcomax are two of the trade names of such alloys. Small amounts of Cu, Ti and Nb may also be used, and the number of variants is large. Even the same composition may be given different names in different countries.
Alnico IV and Alcomax I have randomly oriented grains. Alnico V has superior properties because it has directed columnar crystals which "enable better utilization of the crystalline anisotropy"(Myers).
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